Cairo is one of the most culturally diverse cities, as it witnessed many different historical ages, and there are many ancient and modern monuments, so it has become an open museum that includes Pharaonic, Greek, Roman, Coptic and Islamic monuments. The history of the city dates back to the establishment of the city of Pharaonic Uon or Heliopolis "Ain Shams now", which is one of the oldest cities in the ancient world. As for Cairo in its current style, its establishment dates back to the Islamic conquest of Egypt at the hands of Amr bin Al-Aas in 641 and its establishment in the city of Fustat, then the establishment of the Abbasids for the city of Askar. In the construction of the new capital of the Fatimid state by order of the Fatimid caliph al-Muizz, in 969, and the caliph called it "Cairo". Cairo has been called - throughout the ages - many names, it is the city of a thousand minarets and Egypt Mahrousa and Cairo Moez. During the Islamic period, Cairo witnessed the finest architecture, which was to build castles, forts, fences, schools, and mosques, giving it an aesthetic glimpse still found in its ancient neighborhoods so far.